20 must-have test points for high school political state system
The state has the attributes of sovereignty, class and society. Among them, class is the fundamental attribute of the state.
1. The state has the attributes of sovereignty, class and society. Among them, class is the fundamental attribute of the state.
2. The meaning of democracy: Democracy is a state system, which is the unity of the state system (“within a certain class range”, that is, within the ruling class) and the political system (“according to the principle of equality and the principle of the minority obeying the majority). Democracy has a distinct class nature. Abstract, complete democracy and universal democracy do not exist.
3. Democracy and dictatorship are dialectical unity. On the one hand, democracy and dictatorship are distinct and opposed to each other. Democracy applies only to the ruling class, while dictatorship applies to the ruled class. On the other hand, democracy and dictatorship are complementary and precondition for each other. Democracy is the foundation of dictatorship, and dictatorship is the guarantee of democracy.
4. The relationship between state nature and state functions: state nature determines state functions, and state functions reflect state nature. The functions of the state include: internal functions—political ruling functions, political functions, cultural functions, and social management functions; external functions—defense functions and communication functions.
5. The nature of our country is a socialist country under the people's democratic dictatorship. The leadership of the working class is the primary symbol of the nature of the country, and the alliance of workers and peasants is the class foundation of the people's democratic dictatorship, including workers, peasants, intellectuals, and other socialist laborers. The alliance of patriots who support socialism and patriots who support the reunification of the motherland is The social foundation of the people's democratic dictatorship.
6. The essence of the people's democratic dictatorship is that the people are the masters of the country. Democracy in our country is broad and authentic.
7. my country's democratic political construction: (1) Necessity: ① The development of socialist democracy and the construction of socialist political civilization are important goals for my country to build a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. ②Democracy is the essential attribute and inherent requirement of socialism. ③ The development of socialist democracy is the political guarantee for the modernization drive. ④ my country's socialist democracy has yet to be further improved. (2) How to build: ① The most fundamental thing is to organically unify adherence to the leadership of the party, the people as masters of the country, and the rule of law. ② Under the leadership of the party, it must be advanced in a step-by-step and orderly manner. ③ Adhere to the national conditions of our country and learn from the beneficial achievements of human political civilization, but cannot follow the Western political model. ④ Uphold and improve our country's system of people's congresses, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and further expand people's democracy at the grassroots level.
Understand that "to develop socialist democratic politics, the most fundamental thing is to organically unify adherence to the leadership of the party, the people being the masters of the country, and the rule of law." - The leadership of the party is the fundamental guarantee for the people to be the masters of the country and the rule of law, and the people are the masters of the country. Ownership is the essential requirement of socialist democratic politics, and governing the country according to law is the basic strategy for the Party to lead the people in governing the country.
8. my country's state functions: ① Political functions: that is, the state's functions to maintain political rule and political stability, including cracking down on various sabotage and criminal activities in accordance with the law, and building socialist democracy. ② Economic functions: that is, the state organizes economic construction, promotes social and economic development, and improves the level of productivity and people's living standards. The functions of the state to manage the economy are mainly to carry out economic regulation, market supervision, social management and public services. ③Cultural functions: Socialist cultural construction not only ensures the correct development direction of economic construction, but also provides spiritual power, intellectual support and ideological guarantee. Including improving the ideological and moral quality and scientific and cultural quality of the whole nation, organizing and developing education, science and technology, culture, art, radio and television, health, sports and other undertakings. ④ Social and public service functions. Including maintaining social stability and unity, improving social security, and protecting public property; establishing and improving the social security system; setting up various public projects and improving various public facilities; protecting the public environment and maintaining ecological balance. ⑤ The functions of defense, communication, and maintenance of world peace, promoting common development, and actively exerting our country's role in the international community.
Understanding: (1) The main body performing state functions must be state organs, namely: people's congresses at all levels, the State Council and ministries and commissions, local people's governments at all levels, people's courts and people's procuratorates at all levels, excluding: party organs, people's CPPCC and other social organizations, people's organizations, urban residents' committees and villagers' committees and other mass self-governing organizations. (2) To fully grasp the name, basic meaning, meaning and exercise method of each function. (3) Pay attention to grasping that the same case may reflect several functions. Distinguish between embodying a function and facilitating the handling of a relationship.
9. Type of government: (1) The relationship between the state and the government. (2) Compare the parliamentary constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary republic (similarities and differences). Compare presidential and parliamentary republics (similarities and differences). (The content is omitted, see P20~23 of the textbook for details)
10. my country's people's congress system: (1) Distinguish the people's congress system from the people's congress and the national people's congress - the people's congress system is our country's political system, the organizational form of state power, and the fundamental political system of our country. The People's Congress is my country's state power organ, including the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at all levels, and occupies the core position in our country's political system. The National People's Congress is the highest organ of state power in my country. (2) The functions and powers of the National People's Congress: the highest legislative power, the highest decision-making power, the highest appointment and dismissal power, and the highest supervisory power. (It is necessary to grasp their different contents to distinguish these four kinds of functions and powers) (3) The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the permanent organ of the National People's Congress. (4) People's representatives: ① The people's representatives are members of the state power organs (nature and legal status) ② How do you understand "my country's state power comes from the people"? ——Deputies to the people's congresses at all levels in our country come from the people and are controlled by the people. Elected. People's representatives represent the interests and will of the people and exercise state power in accordance with the functions and powers conferred by the Constitution and laws. People's representatives must maintain close contact with the people, listen to and reflect their opinions and demands, be responsible to the people, and accept their supervision. ③ The people's representatives must exercise their powers in accordance with the law and earnestly perform their duties. ④ The people's congress system is an indirect democracy, so it cannot be said that the people of our country directly exercise state power. (5) Democratic centralism is the organization and activity principle of the People's Congress system. (6) Why must the system of people's congresses be adhered to? ① The system of people's congresses directly reflects the state nature of our people's democratic dictatorship. The system of the people's congress is the foundation upon which other state management systems are established. ② Our country's people's congress system is the best form for the people to be the masters of the country, which is suitable for our country's national conditions. It is conducive to ensuring that state power is concentrated and reflecting the will of the people, that it is conducive to ensuring the unity of central and local state power, and that it is conducive to ensuring that all ethnic groups in our country are equality and solidarity. (7) Any further improvement of the people's congress system? --- ① Further improvement of the election of people's representatives. ② Further strengthen the legislative and supervisory functions of the National People's Congress. ③ Further close the relationship between the National People's Congress and the people.
11. The form of national structure includes federal system and unitary system. The main difference between the two is that the central power of the former is transferred from the local government, while the local power of the latter is given by the central government. my country is a unitary country.
12. "One Country, Two Systems": (1) Completing the great cause of reunification of the motherland is the fundamental interest of the Chinese nation, the common aspiration of all Chinese people, and a major issue of principle in safeguarding the country's territorial sovereignty and national dignity. (2) "One country, two systems" is the basic policy for realizing the peaceful reunification of the motherland. (3) Meaning and main content: ① The premise and basis of "one country, two systems" is "one country", that is, one China, and the only representative of China in the world can be the People's Republic of China and its Central People's Government. ②The two systems coexist, and the main body of the country is the socialist system. ③ Special administrative regions established under "One Country, Two Systems" enjoy a high degree of autonomy. Special administrative regions are local administrative regions under the unified leadership of the Central People's Government. However, it enjoys a high degree of autonomy (not "complete autonomy") - administrative power, legislative power (local), independent judicial power and final adjudication power, certain foreign affairs power, and other autonomous powers granted by the central government in accordance with the law. (Note that there is no diplomatic power and national defense power) (such as the Chief Executive's visit to Beijing to report his duties, the main officials of the special administrative region are appointed by the central government, and the interpretation of the "Basic Law" is exercised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, etc. All reflect that the special administrative region is a place under the leadership of the central government Administrative region) (4) Significance: It is powerful to realize the reunification of the motherland, is conducive to promoting the socialist modernization drive of our country, and is conducive to the stability and prosperity of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.
13. The Taiwan question: (1) Nature - it is the internal affairs of the country to achieve reunification, not a question of restoring sovereignty, not a question of state-to-state relations. (2) Adhering to the one-China principle is the basis for developing cross-strait relations and achieving peaceful reunification. At its core, the mainland and Taiwan belong to the same China, and China's sovereignty and territorial integrity cannot be divided. (3) "Peaceful reunification, one country, two systems" is the best way to reunify the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. ①Using peaceful means can avoid social turmoil brought about by war, without damaging national strength or hurting people's hearts, which is the common aspiration of the people. ② After the reunification of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, Taiwan can keep the original social system unchanged and a high degree of autonomy. The way of life of the Taiwan compatriots will remain unchanged, their vital interests will be fully guaranteed, and they will enjoy peace forever. Taiwan's economy will truly take the mainland of the motherland as its hinterland and gain a broad space for development. ③Taiwan compatriots can, together with their compatriots on the mainland of the motherland, exercise the power to manage the country and share the dignity and honor of the great motherland in the world. (4) We oppose the use of referendums and "constitutional amendments" to determine the fate of Taiwan - the sovereignty of the people belongs to the entire people, the sovereignty of China belongs to the entire Chinese people, and Taiwan is only a part of the People's Republic of China. Therefore, the fate of Taiwan should be It is up to all Chinese people, including the people of Taiwan, to decide. (5) We will never promise to renounce the use of force—①The Taiwan issue is China's internal affair, and the Chinese government has the right to take all measures to safeguard the country's sovereignty and territorial integrity. ② Only when we promise not to give up the use of force can we truly deter Taiwan independence forces and international anti-China forces, and prevent Taiwan from separating from the motherland and foreign interference. ③ Not committing to renounce the use of force is also to demonstrate to the international community our firm determination to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and to promote the reunification of the motherland through peaceful means. ④ The non-commitment to renounce the use of force is not against the people of Taiwan. (6) Taiwan is not eligible to join the United Nations - the United Nations is an international organization joined by sovereign states, and Taiwan is only a local administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
14. The relationship between state institutions and state functions. State functions determine the setup of state institutions.
15. my country's state institutions: ① The president is an important part of my country's highest state authority. It does not decide on major national affairs alone. Represent the People's Republic of China to the outside world. ② The State Council, the Central People's Government, is the executive organ of the highest organ of state power and the highest state administrative organ. ③ The Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ of the state. The people's courts are the judicial organs of the state and exercise judicial power independently in accordance with the law. ④ The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest state procuratorial organ. The People's Procuratorate is the legal supervision organ of the state and independently exercises procuratorial powers in accordance with the law.
16. Principles for the organization and activities of my country's state institutions: (1) Principles of democratic centralism: ① Meaning: the combination of centralism based on democracy and democracy under the guidance of centralism. ②It is mainly reflected in: in the relationship between state power organs and the people, people's congresses at all levels are composed of democratically elected representatives; in the relationship between state power organs and other state organs, all other state organs are composed of people's congresses Produced, responsible for it, and supervised by it. In terms of central and local relations, follow the unified leadership of the central government. Give full play to the principle of local initiative and enthusiasm. (2) The principle of being responsible to the people: ① It is determined by the nature of our country, and is the code of conduct and work purpose of all state organs and their staff in our country. ②This principle requires: close contact with the masses; self-discipline, honesty and self-discipline, accepting the supervision of the people; adhere to the work method of coming from the masses and going to the masses. (3) Principles of governing the country by law: ① Governing the country by law is the basic strategy for the Party to lead the people in governing the country. The rule of law is the essential requirement of socialist democracy and the objective requirement of the development of the socialist market economy. Only by taking the road of ruling the country according to the law can we ensure social stability, economic prosperity and long-term stability of the country. ② Meaning: The main body of the rule of law is the masses of the people; its essence is to uphold the authority of the constitution and the law; its fundamental purpose is to ensure that the people are the masters of the country. ③ Requirements for the implementation of the rule of law: Legislative organs must formulate laws in strict accordance with legislative procedures to ensure that there are laws to abide by; administrative organs must strictly administer according to law; judicial organs must administer justice impartially and strictly enforce the law; further improve the legal supervision system, strengthen law enforcement supervision and popularization of the law Education work combines the rule of law and the rule of virtue.
17. The relationship between Chinese citizens and the state: in terms of legal relationship, it is manifested in the rights and obligations of citizens stipulated by the constitution and laws, and it is a harmonious and unified relationship.
18. Political rights and freedoms of Chinese citizens: (1) The right to vote and stand for election is the basis for the people to exercise state power and manage state affairs, and are the basic political rights of citizens. (2) Political freedom. Political freedom is the foundation of democracy. But there is no absolute freedom in the world without law. Law is the embodiment and guarantee of freedom, and freedom and law are unified. Therefore, citizens must exercise political freedom within the limits of the law. (3) Supervision power. Includes the right to criticize and suggest, appeal, accuse and report. Citizens exercising their right of supervision in accordance with the law are conducive to overcoming bureaucracy and unhealthy practices, improving the work of state organs and their staff, and are conducive to safeguarding the interests of the state and the legitimate interests of citizens.
19. Basic obligations of citizens: to maintain national unity and national unity. The obligation to safeguard national security, honor and interests. Safeguarding national security, honor and interests is an important guarantee for the realization of national prosperity and national rejuvenation. At present, national security has expanded to many areas of social life such as information security, technological security, environmental security, biological gene security, normal living order of residents, and life safety beyond the territory and sovereignty.
20. Correctly treat the rights and obligations of citizens: (1) Adhere to the principle that all citizens are equal before the law: ① This does not refer to equality in legislation, but equality in the implementation of laws, that is, judicial equality and law-abiding equality. ② Specific performance: Every citizen enjoys power and performs duties equally; the legal rights of any citizen are protected by law, and the illegal and criminal behavior of any citizen is punished by law. (2) Adhere to the principle of the unity of civil rights and obligations: ① The dialectical relationship between rights and obligations: rights and obligations are inseparable. Rights and obligations exist in a corresponding legal relationship. Citizens are both the subjects of rights and obligations; rights and obligations complement each other. ② Any citizen enjoys the rights stipulated by the Constitution and the law, and at the same time must perform the obligations stipulated by the Constitution and the law. (3) Adhere to the principle of combining personal interests with national interests. We must exercise the rights of citizens on the track of the socialist legal system; we must actively perform civic duties to safeguard national interests.