High school biology 111 conclusions to help you pass the basics of biology
Organisms have a common material basis and structural basis.
1. Organisms have a common material basis and structural basis.
2. The cell is the basic unit of the structure and function of the organism; the cell is the basic unit of the structure of all animals and plants. Viruses have no cellular structure.
3. Metabolism is the basis for all life activities of organisms.
4. Organisms are stressful and therefore able to adapt to their surroundings.
5. The characteristics of biological heredity and variation enable various species to remain basically stable and to evolve continuously.
6. Organisms can adapt to a certain environment and can also affect the environment. Chapter 1 The basic unit of life - the cell
7. The chemical elements that make up living organisms can be found in inorganic nature. No chemical element is unique to the biological world. This fact shows that the biological and non-biological worlds are unified.
8. There are also differences between the biological world and the non-biological world.
9. Carbohydrates are the main energy substances for cells and the main energy substances for living organisms to carry out life activities.
10. All life activities are inseparable from protein.
11. Nucleic acid is the genetic material of all living things.
12. None of the compounds that make up an organism can complete a certain life activity alone, and only when these compounds are organically organized in a certain way can they show the life phenomenon of cells and organisms. Cells are the most basic structural form of these substances.
13. All living things on earth, except for viruses, are composed of cells.
14. The cell membrane has the structural characteristic of certain fluidity and the functional characteristic of selective permeability.
15. The cell wall supports and protects plant cells.
16. Mitochondria are the main sites for aerobic respiration in living cells.
17. The ribosome is the place in the cell where amino acids are synthesized into proteins.
18. Chromatin and chromosomes are two forms of the same substance in cells at different times.
19. The nucleus is the place where the genetic material is stored and replicated, and it is the control center of the cell's genetic characteristics and the cell's metabolic activity.
20. Each part of the structure that constitutes a cell is not isolated from each other, but closely linked and coordinated with each other. A cell is an organic unified whole. Only when a cell maintains its integrity, can it normally complete various life activities.
21. Cells proliferate by division, and cell proliferation is the basis for the growth, development, reproduction and inheritance of organisms.
22. The important significance (feature) of cell mitosis is that after the chromosome of the parent cell is replicated, it is precisely and evenly distributed to the two daughter cells, thus maintaining the stability of genetic traits between the biological parent and the offspring of genetic significance.
23. Highly differentiated plant cells still have the ability to develop into complete plants, that is, to maintain cell totipotency.
Chapter 2 Metabolism
24. Metabolism is the most basic feature of living things and the most essential difference between living things and non-living things.
25. The catalysis of enzymes has high efficiency and specificity.
26. The catalysis of enzymes requires suitable conditions such as temperature and pH value.
27.ATP is the direct source of energy required for metabolism.
28. The oxygen released by photosynthesis all comes from water.
29. The uptake of mineral elements and osmotic water uptake by epidermal cells in the mature area of plants are two relatively independent processes.
30. In higher multicellular animals, their somatic cells can exchange substances with the external environment only through the internal environment.
31. Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins can be converted, and they are conditional and mutually restrictive.
32. Homeostasis is a necessary condition for the body to carry out normal life activities.
Chapter 3 Reproduction and Development of Organisms
33. The offspring produced by sexual reproduction have the genetic characteristics of both parents and have greater living ability and variability, so they are of great significance to the survival and evolution of organisms.
34. Vegetative reproduction enables offspring to maintain the traits of the parent.
35. As a result of meiosis, the number of chromosomes in the germ cells produced is reduced by half compared to the sperm (egg) primordial cells.
36. During the process of meiosis, the homologous chromosomes of the synapse are separated from each other, indicating that the chromosomes are independent to a certain extent; it is random to which pole the two homologous chromosomes move to, and the different homologous chromosomes (non-homologous chromosomes) can be separated. Make free combinations.
37. The halving of the number of chromosomes during meiosis occurs in the first division of meiosis.
38. An oogonia undergoes meiosis to form only one egg cell (one genotype). A spermatogonia undergoes meiosis to form four sperm (two genotypes).
39. For sexual reproduction organisms, meiosis and fertilization are very important for maintaining the constant number of chromosomes in the pre- and progeny somatic cells of each organism, as well as for the inheritance and variation of organisms.
40. For organisms that reproduce sexually, the starting point of individual development is the fertilized egg.
41. There is no endosperm in the mature seeds of many dicotyledonous plants (such as legumes, peanuts, rapeseed, shepherd's purse, etc.), because the endosperm is absorbed by the cotyledons during the development of the embryo and endosperm, and nutrients are stored in the cotyledons for future seeds. Required for germination. Monocots have endosperm (such as rice, wheat, corn, etc.)
42. The formation of plant flower buds marks the beginning of reproductive growth.
43. The ontogeny of higher animals includes embryonic development and postembryonic development. Embryo development refers to the development of a fertilized egg into a larva, and postembryonic development refers to the hatching of the larva from the egg membrane or the birth from the mother and development into a sexually mature individual.
44. Embryo development includes: fertilized egg → cleavage → blastocyst → gastrula → differentiation of three germ layers → formation of tissues, organs and systems → animal larvae
Chapter 4 Regulation of Life Activities
45. The phototropism experiment found that the part that senses light stimulation is at the tip of the coleoptile, and the part that bends towards the light is at the section below the tip. The light side has less auxin distribution and grows slowly; the backlight side grows The more elements are distributed, the faster the growth is.
46. The effect of auxin on plant growth is often dual. This is related to the concentration of auxin and the type of plant organs. In general, low concentrations promote growth and high concentrations inhibit growth.
47. Seedless fruits can be obtained by applying a certain concentration of auxin solution on the pistil stigma of tomato (cucumber, pepper, etc.) that has not been pollinated.
48. In addition to secreting growth hormone to promote the growth of animals, the pituitary can also secrete a type of pro-hormone to regulate the secretory activities of other endocrine glands.
49. There are synergistic and antagonistic effects between related hormones.
50. The basic mode of (multicellular) animal neural activity is reflex, and the basic structure is reflex arc (ie: the structural basis of reflex activity is reflex arc).
51. In the central nervous system, the higher center that regulates the physiological activities of humans and higher animals is the cerebral cortex.
52. In animal behavior, hormonal regulation and neuromodulation are coordinated with each other, but neuromodulation is still dominant.
53. The life activities of higher animals are completed under the joint regulation of nervous system and body fluids.
Chapter 5 Inheritance and Variation
54. The genetic characteristics of organisms keep biological species relatively stable. The variation characteristics of organisms enable biological species to produce new traits, so as to form new species and evolve forward.
55. In the experiment of phage infection of bacteria, it is DNA, not protein, that maintains a certain continuity between predecessors and offspring, thus proving that DNA is the genetic material.
56. Since the genetic material of most organisms is DNA, DNA is the main genetic material.
57. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is the main genetic material, and DNA is mainly distributed on chromosomes, so chromosomes are the main carrier of genetic material.
58. In DNA molecules, the order of base pairs is ever-changing, which constitutes the diversity of DNA molecules; while for a specific DNA molecule, its base pairs are arranged in a specific order, which constitutes the diversity of DNA molecules. The specificity of a DNA molecule. This explains the reasons for the diversity and specificity of organisms at the molecular level.
59. The transmission of genetic information is accomplished through the replication of DNA molecules, from parental DNA to offspring DNA, and from parental individuals to offspring individuals.
60. The unique double-helix structure of DNA molecules provides an accurate template for replication; through complementary base pairing, it ensures that replication can be performed accurately.
61. The progeny is similar in character to the parent because the progeny has acquired a copy of the parent's DNA.
62. Genes are DNA segments with genetic effects. Genes are arranged linearly on chromosomes. Chromosomes are the main carriers of genes (genes also exist on DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria).
63. Genetic information refers to the order in which deoxynucleotides are arranged on genes.
64. The genetic code refers to the sequence of ribonucleotides on messenger RNA.
65. A codon refers to the three adjacent bases on the messenger RNA that determine an amino acid. There are 64 combinations of four bases on messenger RNA, of which 61 determine amino acids and 3 are stop codons.
66. Anticodon refers to the three bases on the transfer RNA that can be paired with the codon of the amino acid it carries. Since there are 61 kinds of codons that determine the amino acid, there are also 61 kinds of anticodons.
67. Gene expression is achieved by DNA-controlled protein synthesis, including two processes of transcription and translation.
68. Since the arrangement sequence (base sequence) of deoxynucleotides of different genes is different, different genes contain different genetic information (that is, the arrangement sequence of deoxynucleotides of genes represents genetic information).
69. The heredity of organisms is the result of the combined action of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
70. In general, there is one DNA molecule on a chromosome, and there are many genes on one DNA molecule.
71. The relationship between individual genotype and phenotype is: genotype is the internal factor of trait expression, while phenotype is the expression of genotype. In the process of ontogeny, the phenotype of an individual organism is not only controlled by internal genes, but also affected by environmental conditions. The phenotype is the result of the interaction between genotype and environment.
72. In hybrids, although alleles coexist in a cell, they are located on a pair of homologous chromosomes, and they are separated with the separation of homologous chromosomes, and have a certain degree of independence. During meiosis, alleles are passed on to offspring along with gametes, which is the law of gene segregation.
73. The incidence of genetic diseases controlled by dominant genes is very high, which is generally inherited from generation to generation.
74. In the case of consanguineous marriage, they may inherit the same recessive disease-causing gene from a common ancestor, which greatly increases the chance of their offspring developing the disease. Therefore, consanguineous marriage should be prohibited.
75. When parents with two pairs (or more pairs) of relative traits are crossed, when F1 undergoes meiosis to form gametes, while alleles are separated with the separation of homologous chromosomes, genes on non-homologous chromosomes It is a free combination. This law is called the law of free combination of genes, also known as the law of independent distribution.
76. According to statistics, the incidence of color blindness in men in my country is 7%, while the incidence in women is only 0.49%.
77. Generally speaking, color blindness, a genetic disease, is passed on from a man to his nephew through his daughter (cross-inheritance).
78. my country's Marriage Law stipulates that marriage between direct blood relatives and collateral blood relatives within three generations is prohibited.
79. Gene mutation is the main source of biological variation and an important factor in biological evolution, which can produce new traits.
80. Gene mutation is caused by changes in the type, quantity and arrangement of deoxynucleotides in genes under the action of certain external environmental conditions or internal biological factors. That is, a genetic mutation is the result of a change in the molecular structure of a gene.
81. Polyploid plants in nature are mainly formed under the influence of drastic changes in external conditions. Artificially formed polyploid plants are germinated seeds or seedlings treated with colchicine to prevent the formation of spindles in prophase mitosis.
82. The use of haploid plants to breed new varieties can significantly shorten the breeding years.
83. The so-called use of haploid for colchicine treatment can get homozygous. There is a prerequisite here, that is, this haploid must be for diploid, that is, it is cultivated from diploid gametes. formed haploid.
Chapter 6 The origin of life and the evolution of organisms
84. The origin of life has gone through four stages of chemical evolution: from inorganic small molecular substances to organic small molecular substances, from organic small molecular substances to organic high molecular substances, from organic high molecular substances to form multi-molecular systems, and from multi-molecular systems evolution for primitive life.
85. Evolutionists believe that the various creatures on the earth are not created by God, but evolved from a common ancestor over a long period of time, so various creatures have close or distant kinship.
86. The theory of natural selection includes: over-breeding, struggle for survival, heredity and variation, and survival of the fittest.
87. All creatures that survive are adaptable to the environment, while those that are eliminated are not adaptable to the environment. This is the survival of the fittest, and the unfit is eliminated, called natural selection.
88. Adaptation is the result of natural selection.
89. Mutation (including genetic mutation and chromosomal variation) and genetic recombination are the raw materials for evolution; natural selection changes populations and determines the direction of biological evolution.
90. According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, it can be known that biological variation is generally not directional, while natural selection is directional (set in the direction that is adapted to the living environment). When organisms mutate, natural selection determines their survival or elimination.
91. Heredity and variation are the internal factors of biological evolution. The struggle for survival drives biological evolution, and it is the driving force of biological evolution. Directed natural selection determines the direction of biological evolution.
92. Intraspecific struggle is harmful to the failed individual, and even causes death, but it is beneficial to the survival of the entire population.
Chapter 7 Organisms and the Environment
93. The biosphere includes all living things on earth and their inorganic environment.
94. The relationship between organisms and living environment is: adapting to the environment, being affected by environmental factors, and changing the environment at the same time.
95. The adaptation of organisms to the environment is only a certain degree of adaptation, not absolute and complete adaptation.
96. The adaptation of organisms to the environment is both universal and relative. As organisms adapt to the environment, they can also affect the environment.
97. There is an interaction between living things and the environment, they are an indivisible unified whole.
98. Population refers to the population in a certain space and time.
The total number of individuals of the same species. Population characteristics include: population density, age composition, sex ratio, birth rate and mortality rate.
99. A biological community refers to the sum total of various biological populations that live in a certain natural area and have direct or indirect relationships with each other.
100. A common feature of all ecosystems is that there are both a large number of organisms and an inorganic environment on which to survive, both of which are indispensable.
101. The total amount of solar energy fixed by the producer is the total energy flowing through the ecosystem.
102. Food chains and food webs are channels for the flow of matter and energy in an ecosystem through food relationships.
103. In the food chain and food web, the more the organisms are at the top of the energy pyramid, the less energy they get, and the more harmful ingredients in the body through bio-enrichment.
104. The main purpose of people studying the energy flow in the ecosystem is to try to adjust the energy flow relationship of the ecosystem, so that the energy flows to the part that is most beneficial to human beings.
105. Energy flow and material circulation are causal and complementary to each other, and have an inseparable connection.
106. The stability of an ecosystem includes resistance stability and resilience stability. The relationship between the two is opposite, that is, the greater the resistance stability, the lower the resilience stability, and vice versa.
107. The production mode of sustainable ecological agriculture has changed from the traditional "raw material-product-waste" to the modern "raw material-product-raw material-product".
108. We should take measures to maintain the ecological balance of the ecosystem, so that we can obtain stable yields from the ecosystem and enable people to develop in harmony with nature.
109. To maintain ecological balance is not to maintain the original stable state of the ecosystem. Humans can also establish a new ecological balance under the premise of following the law of ecological balance, so that the ecosystem can develop in a direction that is more beneficial to human beings.
110. Our emphasis on nature protection does not mean that development and utilization are prohibited. Rather, it opposes unplanned development and utilization.
111. Only by following the objective laws of the ecosystem and comprehensively considering issues from a long-term perspective and an overall perspective, can we effectively protect nature and make the natural environment better serve human beings.