The difference between "praise" and "encouragement" has such a big impact on children

Carol Dweck, a prominent developmental psychologist at Stanford University, and her team have spent the past 10 years studying the effects of praise on children.

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Education method

Dear child, no one in this world loves you more than me!
Carol Dweck, a prominent developmental psychologist at Stanford University, and her team have spent the past 10 years studying the effects of praise on children.
They did a long-term study of 400 fifth-grade students in 20 New York schools, and the results shocked the academic world.
In the experiment, they had the children complete a series of puzzle tasks independently.
First, the researchers called only one child from the classroom at a time for the first round of IQ tests.
The test questions are very simple puzzles that almost all children can do fairly well. After each child completes the test, the researchers tell him the score, along with a word of encouragement or praise.
The researchers randomly divided the children into two groups, and one group received a compliment about IQ, or praise, such as, "You're talented at puzzles, you're smart."
Another group of children received a compliment of effort, or encouragement, such as, "You must have worked really hard just now, so you did a great job."
Why only one compliment? Dweck explained: "We wanted to see how sensitive the child was to praise or encouragement. I had a gut feeling at the time: One compliment was enough to see results."
Afterwards, the children participated in the second round of the jigsaw puzzle.
There are two different difficulty tests to choose from, and they are free to choose which test to take. One is harder, but you will learn something new during the test. The other is a simple test similar to the previous round.
It found that 90 percent of the children who were praised for their effort in the first round chose the more difficult task.
And those who were praised for being smart mostly chose easy tasks. It can be seen that children who think they are smart do not like to face challenges.
Why is this so?
"When we praise our kids for being smart, we're telling them to stay smart by not taking the risk of making mistakes," Dweck wrote in the study. That's what the "smart" kids in the experiment did. : Avoid the risk of making a fool of yourself in order to keep looking smart.
A third round of testing followed.
This time, all children took the same test, with no choice. This test is very difficult, it is a first-level exam question. As you can imagine, the kids all failed. Children who had previously received different compliments responded differently to failure.
Children who were previously praised for their effort believed that they failed because they didn't try hard enough.
Dweck recalled: “These kids were very engaged in the tests and tried to solve the puzzles in a variety of ways, and several of them told me, ‘This is my favorite test.’” And the kids who were praised for being smart Believe that they fail because they are not smart enough.
They were nervous all the time during the test, scratching their heads and getting frustrated when they couldn't answer the questions.
In the third round of testing, the Dweck team deliberately gave the kids a setback. Next, they gave the children a fourth round of tests, this time with the same simple questions as the first.
The children who were praised for their hard work improved their scores on this test by about 30 percent compared to the first time. The children who were praised for being smart, this time, compared with the first time, dropped by about 20%.
Dweck has always suspected that praise may not have a good effect on children, but the results of this experiment were far beyond her expectations.
She explained:
"Encouragement, that is, praising children for their hard work, will give them a sense of control. Children will think that success is in their own hands. On the other hand, praising, that is, praising children for being smart, is equivalent to telling them that success is not in their own hands. In that way, when they face failure, they are often helpless.”
In follow-up interviews with the children, Dweck found that those who believed that talent was the key to success unconsciously underestimated the importance of effort.
These kids reason like this: I'm smart, so I don't have to work so hard. They even think that trying to be stupid is to admit to everyone that they are not smart enough.
Dweck's experiment was repeated many times. She found that no matter what family background a child had, they couldn't stand the frustration of being praised for being smart and being frustrated.
Boys and girls alike, but high-achieving girls in particular are hit the hardest. Even preschoolers, such praise can hurt them.
Encouragement refers to encouragement and support, while praise refers to highlighting and advocating one thing or character.
Encouragement is usually for the process and attitude, "Dad sees your hard work this semester, I'm proud of you!"
More encouragement, less praise; more description, less evaluation, can prevent children from being kidnapped by praise, or unable to lose, and will do anything to achieve their goals.